The OECD Conference, held on 12-13 May 2015 in Paris, dedicated a special session to the garment and textiles value chain. While know-how, design and innovation are still concentrated in traditional hubs, a growing number of countries started to develop industrial capabilities linked to this industry’s value chain, as well as growing as final consumer markets. Many countries in East Asia, but also in Africa, are now hosting garment production and some of their homes grown SMEs have started to engage in global trade. The impact of global value chains in the textile industry has been mixed, as showed by some successful cases of textile hubs in developing economies that have managed to grow and internationalize, but with major challenges to be addressed in terms of inclusive and sustainable development impact. Despite of technological progress, manufacturing is still labour intensive and security on the work-place and working conditions are major open challenges, which are prompting government and the business community to find solutions to promote responsible business conducts (RBCs). Participants were invited to discuss and answer questions such as: What have been the major changes in the garment and textile industry in your country and at the domestic and global level? How do you expect the industry to evolve in the future? What have been the key factors driving success in integration and/or upgrading in the textile value chain? What actions are implemented in your country to promote responsible business conduct (RBC) in the textile and apparel value chain? What can policies do to promote linkages and upgrading in the textile value chain?